By Dr Raghuram Y.S.MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
The phrases Sira, Dhamani and Srotas are used interchangeably in Ayurveda. All of those constructions transport one thing or the opposite from one a part of the physique to the opposite. The outline of every of those exhibits that they’re completely different constructions serving completely different features within the physique. Sira Sharira i.e. research of siras is equated to angiology therefore, thought-about as ‘Ayurveda Angiology’.
Learn – Dhamani Sharira Which means, Perform, Capabilities, Distribution
Definition of Sira
In response to Atharva Veda – ‘Siras are these which carry impure blood. They’re really referred to as Hira as a substitute of Sira. These of which carry pure blood are referred to as dhamani’.
With this reference we perceive that the sira is vein and dhamani is artery. However, Grasp Sushruta’s rationalization of sira encompasses many constructions i.e. veins, arteries, lymphatic and nerves.
Grasp Charaka says ‘Since there may be motion of blood in these constructions they’re referred to as as sira’. Sarana means ‘to go’ or ‘to maneuver from one place to the opposite’.
Grasp Gangadhara tells ‘Sarana means the motion of rasa and different tissues. The construction through which such motion takes place is named as sira’. Right here we get a doubt since Gangadhara has particularly talked about ‘rasadinam gamanat’ i.e. many extra tissues aside from blood circulation or transfer in these siras. However the constructions which carry all of the tissues are referred to as as srotas. Sira and Srotas have been used as synonymous to one another by many authors. Dhamani can be a synonym of sira and srotas. The title of the identical construction may be sira, dhamani or srotas relying on what sort of operate they’re rendering. However they’re anatomically and functionally completely different since, they’ve been described individually regardless of getting used interchangeably.
One other truth is that the srotas carry the tissues that are within the technique of transformation and siras carry the fashioned blood and lymph / plasma tissue.
Learn – Rasa Dhatu: Definition, Formation, Circulation, Imbalance Ailments, Therapy
Origin, Root, Variety of Siras
Grasp Sushruta says that there are a complete variety of 700 siras within the human physique. The features of the siras are to offer vitamin to each a part of the physique. Subsequently they’re unfold out in your entire physique. This has been defined with appropriate examples –
Understanding the features of Siras with examples of water carriers and small channels – Similar to the water carriers sprinkle water to each plant within the backyard / grove and similar to the small canals / channels carrying water convey water to each a part of the sphere and nourish the crops therein, the siras unfold all by the physique and nourish all constructions therein.
Understanding the construction of sira with examples of veins of leaves – Similar to the veins and venules are unfold over the leaf, the siras unfold all by the physique. They department and re-branch as they unfold out.
Learn – Shaareera: Ayurvedic Research Of Anatomy And Physiology
Root of origin of siras – Umbilicus is the basis of origin of siras. After taking their origin within the navel the siras unfold upwards, downwards and side-wards. They unfold all through the physique from the navel. This can be the reason in relation to fetal circulation and restricted to that a part of rationalization from the trendy perspective. The life ingredient of all dwelling beings is situated within the navel. And the navel exists on the premise of the life components linked to it. The navel is surrounded by the siras in a method just like the spokes of a wheel which encompass the axle of the wheel. From this instance we perceive that the navel is the axle and the siras taking their origin from the navel and in addition surrounding the navel type the spokes of the axle. Thus, the navel and the siras round it appear to be the wheel and its spokes. Similar to the axle relies on the spokes and spokes on the axle, the life ingredient is situated within the navel and the supply of existence of the navel is the pranas i.e. life components linked to it.
The prana which is linked to the navel on this context ought to be understood as ‘blood’. Siras convey blood and blood is a crucial life ingredient, we reside when the blood flows uninterruptedly to every nook of the physique. The navel is surrounded by siras additionally implies that the navel is surrounded by blood – described as life ingredient on this context.
Once we have a look at the fetal circulation we perceive that the blood circulation to and from the kid occurs by the child’s navel. The vitamin to the child from the mom passes by the placenta, umbilical twine and navel of the kid to the kid. This has to occur uninterruptedly because the child within the womb doesn’t have its personal circulation and oxygenation system which is working. The infant and sustenance of its life and progress of the child is completely depending on the mom and the mechanism of fetal circulation which connects the mom with the child. If this connection will get reduce off from the child’s navel or if the fetal circulation is hampered it might end result within the dying of the kid within the womb. If the kid has inadequate blood and vitamin provide by the fetal circulation, the kid may take beginning with many abnormalities. From this attitude the navel may need been stated to be the basis and origin of siras. Subsequently this description is from the embryological viewpoint.
Learn – Embryology As Per Ayurveda
Why solely 700 siras – 700 siras ought to be understood because the bigger branches of siras. They’d additional department into smaller branches as they unfold all through the physique and thus hundreds of siras are fashioned.
If we rigorously observe the meanings of the above talked about 3 examples, the examples clarify 3 completely different sorts of siras.
|Sl No||Instance describing siras||Sort of sira referred to by the instance|
|1||Water service||Bigger siras – most likely the 700 siras talked about by Sushruta|
|2||Channels / small canals conveying water to the crops / crops within the fields||The secondary branches of the above stated 700 siras, siras of average dimension – dimension of those siras are smaller than the bigger siras|
|3||Veins and venules of the leaves||The tertiary branches of the siras, the smallest branches which most likely department out from the average sized siras talked about above|
Learn – Srotas: Physique Channels and Duct techniques – Straightforward Clarification
Word – If sira is taken as vein, the research ought to be accomplished in a reverse method. Analogy / instance 3 explains the formation of venules on the capillary degree, becoming a member of to develop into the secondary tributaries (analogy / instance 2). These secondary tributaries be part of collectively to develop into bigger veins (water service instance / analogy 1) which drain into the center. If we have to use the phrase artery for sira we are able to additionally think about the phrase ‘branches’ as a substitute of ‘tributaries’ and their distribution may be understood in a descending method i.e. analogy 1 to analogy 3.
Relation of siras with features of the physique and physique components – Vital privileged features like extension, flexion, speech, sleeping awakening and many others are underneath the management of siras. This implies to say that if the siras and their branches prolong to each a part of the physique and supply them with the wanted vitamin the talked about features shall be doable in an unhampered method. The phrase ‘adi’ which suggests ‘and many others’ explains that many features of the physique are depending on how the siras and their branches are distributed in your entire physique.
Learn – Upadhatu Of Rakta: Sira, Kandara – Sub Tissues Of Rakta
There are 700 siras within the physique. These siras too take their origin from the primary root 40 siras.
Division of 40 root siras
|Sl No||Identify of the Sira||Quantity|
|1||Vatavaha – these conveying vata||10|
|2||Pittavaha – these conveying pitta||10|
|3||Kaphavaha – these conveying kapha||10|
|4||Raktavaha – these conveying blood||10|
Additional division of 40 siras
- The siras situated within the seats of vata and conveying vata are 175 in quantity.
- The siras situated within the seats of pitta and conveying pitta are 175 in quantity.
- The siras situated within the seats of kapha and conveying kapha are 175 in quantity.
- The siras situated within the seats of blood i.e. liver and spleen and conveying blood are 175 in quantity.
Thus the ten root siras every transporting vata, pitta, kapha and blood are additional divided into 175 branches every. Thus the 40 root siras make a complete of 700 siras i.e. 175×4 = 700 siras.
Learn – Sankhya Shaareera: Depend Of Physique Elements As Per Ayurveda
Vatavaha Siras, Vata transporting siras
The foundation vata carrying siras are 40 in quantity. They’re additional divided into 175 siras. The additional sub-division of 175 siras are as beneath talked about –
|Sl No||Seat of Vata carrying siras||No of siras||Sub-divisions of those siras|
|1||Limbs||100||Proper higher limb||25|
|Left higher limb||25|
|Proper decrease limb||25|
|Left decrease limb||25|
|2||Trunk – Thorax + Stomach||34||Buttock, Penis (genital), Pelvis||08|
|Chest / Thorax||10|
|3||Above the extent of clavicle / collar bone (neck and head)||41||Neck||14|
|Ears (each collectively)||04|
|Eyes (each collectively)||08|
Pittavaha, Kaphavah and Raktavaha Siras
The division and subdivisions of pitta, kapha and blood carrying siras would be the similar as that being talked about for vata carrying channels.
The distinction is that there are 10 siras carrying pitta within the eyes and a couple of within the ears. The identical are the variety of siras carrying kapha and blood to eyes and ears.
Learn – Channels Of Circulation And Doshas
Capabilities of un-vitiated and vitiated vata in vata carrying siras
Many of the bodily and psychological features of our physique are underneath the management of vata. Vayu would render these features in an ideal and uninterrupted method being in its siras.
The mind wouldn’t deviate from its regular features. Many extra features of regular and balanced vayu are carried out by the vayu being in its personal siras. The power, shade, complexion, reflection and immunity shall be at their optimum when the balanced vayu operates being in its siras. When the vitiated vata will get situated in its siras and operates from therein it might trigger big selection of problems of vata origin.
Learn – Signs Of Vata Dosha Enhance And Imbalance – Vata Vruddhi Lakshana
Capabilities of un-vitiated and vitiated pitta in pitta carrying siras
The balanced pitta being in its siras induces good virtues and features. It brings about shade and complexion, style in direction of meals, good digestive capability and digestion of meals, state of effectively being and many others. Many extra features of regular and balanced pitta are carried out by the pitta being in its personal siras. The digestive hearth is saved in its uncontaminated type and in its fullest power. This hearth would digest the meals in a correct method and produce good high quality nutritive juices which assist in correct vitamin of the physique.
When the vitiated pitta will get situated within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of pitta origin.
Learn – Pitta Dosha – Common Introduction
Capabilities of un-vitiated and vitiated kapha in kapha carrying siras
The balanced kapha, whereas being in and circulating in its personal siras, induces unctuousness and lubrication to physique components, integrity of the bony joints and power and immunity. Many extra features of regular and balanced kapha are carried out by the kapha being in its personal siras.
The visceral organs and the joints are freed from ailments and performance effortlessly when balanced and uncontaminated kapha circulates in its siras.
When the vitiated kapha will get situated within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of kapha origin.
Learn – Kapha Dosha – Common introduction
Capabilities of un-vitiated and vitiated blood in blood carrying siras
Pure and uncontaminated blood being and circulating in its personal siras nourishes the tissues, bestows good shade and complexion and sensation of contact. Many extra features of regular and balanced blood are carried out by the blood being in its personal siras. The pure blood flowing in its personal siras would nourish and deal with the wellbeing of the sense organs. It bestows shade, stability to the physique components, nourishment and enrichment of tissues.
When the vitiated blood will get situated within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of blood origin.
Learn – Raktavaha Srotas: Description, Vitiation Signs, Therapy
All siras convey all of the doshas!
Siras don’t convey solely vata, pitta or kapha. They carry in all of them the doshas and therefore referred to as as sarvavaha i.e. ‘these carrying all of the doshas’. The doshas which get aggravated and have a tendency to unfold out from their seats positively transfer in all irregular instructions which don’t belong to them when they’re severely aggravated. On this perspective additionally we must always think about that each one siras convey all of the doshas. All of the siras convey all of the doshas immaterial of the doshas being regular or vitiated.
Learn – Qualities Of Vata, Pitta and Kapha Dosha – Straightforward Clarification
Classification of Siras primarily based on shade
|Sl No||Identify of the sira primarily based on dosha or tissue they carry||Shade of the sira||Different options||Trendy correlation|
|1||Vatavaha – carries vata, full of vata||Aruna – Reddish brown||Full of vata||Nerve?|
|2||Pittavaha – carries pitta||Nila – blue||Sizzling on contact||Veins|
|3||Kaphavaha – carries kapha||Goura – white||Chilly on contact and agency||Lymphatics|
|4||Raktavaha – carries blood||Rohini – Shiny crimson||Neither too sizzling nor too chilly on contact||Arteries|
Historically the phrase sira has been in comparison with the blood vessels carrying impure blood i.e. veins. However many consultants are of the opinion that the siras are usually not simply veins, in reality sira is a phrase which describes the blood vessels. Whereas Nila, Goura and Rohini coloured siras carrying pitta, kapha and blood respectively are in comparison with veins, lymphatics and arteries there may be all the time a debate on what the siras having aruna shade ought to be in comparison with. Since these siras carry vata, they need to be related to all actions. Subsequently it’s clever to think about that aruna coloured siras are nerves. However nerves are usually not hole constructions and this builds up a doubt if rohini sira is a nerve or not!
Results of puncturing ‘To not be punctured‘ siras
Siravedha or venesection is likely one of the forms of bloodletting remedy. However all siras shouldn’t be punctured as part of remedy. Some siras are meant to not be punctured. They’re referred to as as avedhya siras. If these siras are punctured whereas doing remedy they both trigger deformity or dying.
Among the many 400 siras situated within the limbs (higher and decrease collectively) – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 16 in quantity.
Among the many 136 siras situated within the trunk – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 32 in quantity.
Among the many 164 siras situated above the extent of clavicle (head and neck) – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 50 in quantity.
Learn – Raktamokshana Advantages, Sorts, Process, Indications
To not be punctured Siras
‘To not be punctured’ siras of the limbs – 16 siras
Out of the 400 siras situated within the limbs 100 siras are present in every limb. Out of those 100 siras in every limb 4 siras are important and will by no means be punctured. They’re –
- Jaladhara sira – 1
- Urvi sira – 2
- Lohitaksha sira – 1
Identical siras shouldn’t be punctured in every of the 4 limbs. This makes a complete of 4×4 = 16 siras within the limbs (2 higher and a couple of decrease limbs) which shouldn’t be punctured. It’s stated that Jaladhara sira is situated within the ‘talahrdaya marma’. Urvi and Lohitaksha siras aside from being siras are additionally marmas (important factors of the physique).
Learn – Marma Shaareera: Definition, Composition: Very important Factors of The Physique
The ‘to not be punctured’ siras of the trunk (chest and stomach) – 32 siras
There are a complete variety of 136 siras within the trunk. The distribution is as beneath talked about –
|Sl No||Seat / web site of siras||Whole quantity|
|2||Flanks (in each flanks collectively)||16 siras (8 in direction of left and eight on proper aspect)|
|3||Backbone||24 siras (12 on all sides of the backbone)|
|4||Stomach / stomach||24 siras|
|5||Thorax / chest||40 siras|
1. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in pelvis
Out of the 32 siras situated within the pelvis and across the hips 8 siras are ‘to not be punctured’. They’re –
- Vitapa – 2 on every vitapa = 4
- Katikataruna – 2 on every katikataruna = 4
2. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the flanks
Out of the 16 siras within the flanks 8 siras are current in both aspect.
Amongst these 4 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
- Urdhwaga Sira – 1 sira transferring upwards on all sides of the flank = 2
- Parsvasandhi – 1 sira situated within the parsvasandhi area on both aspect = 2
3. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the backbone
Among the many 24 siras within the again 12 are positioned on both aspect of the backbone.
2 siras shouldn’t be punctured amongst these 24 siras. They’re the urdhvagamini brhati siras – 1 on all sides = 2 in quantity.
4. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the stomach
Among the many 24 siras situated within the stomach 2 siras situated on both aspect of the median line above the extent of penis shouldn’t be punctured. This sums as much as 2 siras on both aspect of the median line = 4 siras.
5. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the thorax
There are 40 siras within the chest area. Amongst them 14 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
- Hrdaya – 2
- Stanamula – 2 on both aspect = 4
- Stanarohita – 2 on both aspect = 4
- Apalapa – 1 on both aspect = 2
- Apastambha – 1 on both aspect = 2
Whole siras ‘to not be punctured’ within the trunk
|Sl No||Area of the siras||No of Siras on this area||Variety of siras to not be punctured|
Learn – Marmas of Higher And Decrease Limbs: ShakaGata Marmas
The ‘to not be punctured’ siras of head and neck (areas above the extent of collar bones) – 50 siras
There are a complete variety of 164 siras in head and neck i.e. within the areas of the physique above the extent of collar bones. Out of those 50 siras shouldn’t be punctured. The distribution of siras and ‘to not be punctured siras’ are as defined beneath.
|Sl No||Seat / web site of siras||Whole quantity|
|2||Jaw (decrease)||16 siras (8 on all sides of the decrease jaw)|
|3||Tongue||36 siras (16 beneath the tongue and 20 on the tongue)|
|5||Eyes||38 siras (19 siras in every eye)|
|6||Ears||10 siras (5 in every ear)|
|7||Brow area round nostril and eyes||60 siras|
|8||Temples||10 siras (5 on all sides)|
Word – The variety of Siras within the head and neck are talked about to be 164 by Grasp Sushruta. However on the finish of chapter 7 of Sharira Sthana (whereby description of siras have been given) the rely doesn’t tally with 164 siras. The truth is once we rely all of the siras talked about by Sushruta that are distributed within the head, neck and constructions therein we’ll get 262 siras i.e. 98 siras greater than the quantity talked about by Sushruta within the earlier a part of the identical chapter. The explanation for that is unknown. There could be repetition of some siras. Instance we are able to see that after having talked about siras of nostril and eye individually he as soon as once more contains the nostril and eyes together with brow and provides completely different variety of siras (see tab). There’s additionally a chance that he has thought-about solely 164 siras and has not taken the smaller branches within the rely however has considered mentioning them whereas explaining the ‘to not be punctured siras’. However the rely distinction shouldn’t be seen within the rationalization of siras associated to limbs and trunk. OOn the opposite hand the variety of siras of head and neck and the rely each completely tally in Grasp Vagbhatas enumeration of those siras in Ashtanga Sangraha.
1. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in neck
There are 56 siras within the neck.
Amongst these siras 16 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
- Marma siras = 4+8 = 12 siras (4 nila and eight matruka)
- Krukatika = 2
- Vidhura = 2
2. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in decrease jaw
Among the many 16 siras within the decrease jaw 2 siras on all sides situated within the jaw joints (temporo-mandibular joint) shouldn’t be punctured. So, 4 siras within the jaw shouldn’t be punctured completely.
3. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the tongue
Among the many 36 siras, 16 siras are situated beneath the tongue. Amongst these 4 siras shouldn’t be punctured –
- Rasavaha siras (these carrying vitamin) = 2
- Vagvaha siras (these liable for manufacturing of speech) = 2
4. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in Nostril
There are 24 siras within the nostril. Amongst these 5 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
- 4 siras situated within the nasal cavity
- 1 sira situated within the taste bud
5. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in eyes
There are 38 siras in each eyes collectively. Amongst these 2 siras shouldn’t be punctured i.e. 1 sira situated within the outer angle of the attention (one within the left outer angle and one in the best outer angle) = 2 siras.
6. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in ears
There are 10 siras within the ears. Amongst these 2 siras (one in every ear) carrying sound (liable for notion of sound) shouldn’t be punctured.
7. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the a part of the brow associated to eyes and nostril
On this area there are 60 siras. Amongst these 7 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
- These that are located on the margin of hairs = 4
- Situated within the area of avarta marma (one on all sides) = 2
- Situated within the area of sthapani = 1
8. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in temples
There are 10 siras within the temples. Amongst these 2 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re 1 sira in every temple = 2 siras.
9. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in head
There are 12 siras within the head. Amongst these 8 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –
What are Siras?
Understanding the time period sira from the definition and origin viewpoint – Siras are hollowed out constructions which carry plasma and blood tissue in them (in response to the definition). The siras convey rasa and blood to completely different components of the physique. The time period sira is used as synonym or interchangeably with dhamani and srotas that are the opposite constructions that are associated to transportation and distribution of important substances within the physique together with these supplies wanted for tissue building. The origin of siras is claimed to be the umbilicus. This rationalization is proscribed to the ‘embryological rationalization of fetal circulation’. The outreach of siras are ‘complete physique’ since sarana, the operate of sira is defined as ‘transportation of blood from one place to the opposite’.
Sira understanding from the angle of similes given within the treatises – The water service simily explains the siras nourishing the constructions. That is the outward circulation of nourishing materials which may be doable solely by arteries as a result of veins carry again the blood to the center. The definition of siras additionally tells the identical. Sarana means to move or issues within the siras transferring to completely different components of the physique. The leaf analogy too explains the outwards branching of siras and their distribution all by the physique. This could both be branches of arteries or nerves. However nerves are usually not hole and don’t carry something. All these analogies are given by Sushruta in the identical context, one after the opposite.
If siras are taken as veins and dhamanis (because of their pulsation property) as arteries, the water service analogy explains bigger veins, the ‘channels within the subject’ analogy explains the secondary tributaries fashioned by the becoming a member of of smallest veins and in flip be part of collectively to develop into the bigger veins. The ‘veins and venule on the leaf’ analogy explains the tributaries on the origin i.e. venules on the capillary degree. These be part of to type the secondary veins or intermediate veins.
From the useful side of siras – the features like extension, flexion, speech, sleeping, awakening and many others are underneath the management of the nervous system and siras must be thought-about as nerves. If these features are stated to be going down because of correct blood provide to the organs associated to those features, then siras must be thought-about as arteries.
From the angle of dosha clever classification of siras – The features of vata, pitta, kapha and blood are additionally carried about by the balanced presence of those parts in siras and put into circulation by the identical siras. These features embrace mental features, features of thoughts and physique, nourishment, enrichment of tissues, shade, complexion, lubrication, integrity, immunity, digestive features, power, reflection and many others . These features relate to the features of the nervous system / nerves or arteries.
From the angle of shade of the siras – Siras carrying vata are reddish brown and the outline resembles the nerves. Vata features are carried by nerves and the nervous system. Siras carrying pitta are stated to be blue in shade and resemble the construction of veins. Siras carrying kapha are white in shade and resemble the construction of lymphatics. Siras carrying blood are shiny crimson and clarify the construction of arteries and arterioles. Many consultants due to this fact opine that siras are usually not simply veins. The phrase sira ought to be understood contextually. Ayurveda masters have given a generalized title to many constructions as sira by which one thing is conveyed from one place to the opposite and the time period encompasses all of the constructions talked about on this paragraph.
From the siravedha perspective – Siravedha i.e. venesection which is part of bloodletting remedy in Ayurveda factors in direction of the time period sira as vein as a result of artery or nerve can’t be punctured. Grasp Sushruta has enlisted some siras (described above) which shouldn’t be punctured as part of surgical course of or vensection remedy / bloodletting remedy. These siras could be the better veins or necessary arteries or nerves or congruence of those constructions at some extent making a marma i.e. important construction or level whereby it shall not be punctured. The opposite siras may be punctured and therefore the ‘may be punctured’ part of siras are superficial veins which may be punctured for remedy. The siras which fall underneath the class of ‘to not be punctured’ siras could comprise arteries, deeper veins, bigger veins, nerves or marma factors.
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